An amputation is the surgical removal of part of the body, such as an arm or leg. It may be carried out if the limb has become infected, or has experienced serious trauma such as being crushed. This can come with further physical and mental complications, such as infection and mental illness associated with losing a limb.
An amputee is a person who has had a part of their body amputated.
Bronchiectasis is the widening of the airways to the lungs. It is caused when an infection damages the tissue and causes it to lose its elasticity. It allows an excess build up of mucus in the airways, and can also result in muscle and joint pain, and difficulty breathing.
Bronchitis is an infection in the lungs. The main symptom is a hacking cough, but it can also cause muscle pain and tiredness. It can be short or long term. It is caused by viruses, bacteria, or by breathing in harmful substances such as chemicals or smoke.
Colaba Point is the most extreme point of the Mumbai harbour in Mumbai, India.
Concussion is an injury to the brain that is caused by impact to the head. It is usually temporary, although some people do experience long-term complications. Symptoms of concussion include headaches, dizziness, confusion, mood swings and memory loss.
A person who relies on another person for support, especially financial support.
The spoiled appearance of someone, especially their face.
Eczema is a skin condition characterised by itchy, dry and cracked skin. Open wounds due to scratching can easily become infected. People can be born more susceptible to eczema, but it can also be triggered by extreme cold, dry or damp weather, and irritants including chemicals.
To remove from a person characteristics which contribute to their own concept of masculinity.
A lung condition, characterised by chest pain and shortness of breath. Emphysema is caused by damaged tissue in the lungs, usually associated with tobacco smoking.
To join some part of the armed services, including the army, navy or air force.
Gallipoli, in Turkish Gelibolu, is a turkish port town. A major allied campaign took place there in 1915 and 1916.
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection. Symptoms include pain and swelling in the genitals, which can spread to other parts of the body including the eyes. If left untreated it can cause sepsis.
Chemical gases used in the First World War were the first instance of large-scale chemical warfare. An estimated 1,300,000 people were affected by these gases, 91,000 of whom were killed.
Hysteria refers to a mood disorder, which has since been re-categorised into several different mental illnesses. The word had been used since Ancient Greece, and described excessive emotional reactions, paralysis, seizures, blindness, fainting, and losing the ability to speak. It was associated with a regression in the brain, and so was usually diagnosed women and the working classes, both of whom were historically less educated and so perceived to be less developed. During the First World War normal soldiers showing shell-shock symptoms tended to be diagnosed with hysteria, and officers with neurasthenia.
Invisible disabilities can be both physical and mental. They refer to disabilities that are not visible to the public, but still affect their life. These can include stomach issues, lung issues such as bronchitis, or mental trauma from combat experience.
[source Ann Davis, “Invisible Disability.” Ethics, 116 (2005), pp. 153–213]
Malaria is a disease spread by mosquitoes, which can be fatal. It is caused by a mosquito passing a parasite into the bloodstream, and is common in large parts of Africa and Asia, and some parts of the Middle East. Symptoms include high temperatures, vomiting, muscle pains, and shivering.
Pretending to be ill, or inflicting a wound upon oneself to avoid work.
Melancholia is an obsolete psychological term. It refers to similar symptoms to the modern mood disorder depression.
An internal message within a business or organisation.
Disfigurement or injury by removal or destruction of an essential part of the body.
Pain in the muscles.
A mental disorder whose symptoms include exhaustion, muscular pains, headaches, restlessness, and irritability. The term was first used in 1869.
The sudden appearance of a disease.
Inflammation of the tissue around the lungs. Symptoms include chest pain and shortness of breath.
Pneumonia is the inflammation of the tissue in the lungs. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, and causes parts of your lungs to fill with fluid. It can also be caused by breathing in smoke or harmful chemicals. Symptoms include coughing and difficulty breathing, as well as a fever and sweating and shivering. Pneumonia can cause pleurisy and septicemia if untreated.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
An anxiety disorder caused by a major physical or emotional trauma, such as an injury, assault, rape, or exposure to warfare or a disaster involving many casualties. The patient experiences the persistent recurrence of images or memories of the event, together with nightmares, insomnia, a sense of isolation, guilt, irritability, and loss of concentration. Emotions may be flat and depression may develop.
Prosthesis (artificial limb)
Prosthesis are artificial substitutes for missing parts of the body. The word most commonly refers to substitutes that replace lost arms and legs, but bone, artery, and heart valve replacements and artificial eyes and teeth can also be called prosthesis.
Treatment that uses training and therapy to help someone recover to normal life after injury or illness.
Shell-shock was the term coined in 1915 for trauma related to war experience. It was not very well understood, and not very specific, which is why it is no longer used as a medical term. Symptoms described at the time as shell-shock included loss of the use of a body part (such as the arm or the eyes) without physical causes, recurring nightmares, especially on the subject of the war, and physical tics. This was very distressing for sufferers, and treatment was experimental and of variable quality.
[source Reid, F., Broken Men: Shell Shock, Treatment and Recovery in Britain, 1914-30, (London: Continuum, 2010)]
Sutures, or stitches are the most common means of closing wounds. They are used to seal the wound in order to prevent infection, and minimise scarring.
The area in which the conflict takes place during a war.
The Tibia, or shin, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg.
Tropical diseases are found mostly, or exclusively, in hot and humid climates, for example malaria.